diet of dairy cows

Dairy cow ration Dairy cow ration

How to change the diet of dairy cows

جیره گاو شیری
جیره گاو شیری

Periodic or phased feeding is

Designing nutrition programs for cows based on production – food consumption – body weight change and calving.

The different stages of lactation and pregnancy and the order of production in dairy cows are as follows

Newborn Early lactation Mid-lactation Late lactation Dry period Waiting for delivery


In the above diagram, the amount of cow’s milk production per day, the amount of milk peak and its decrease are recorded, which can be examined by examining the factors that have caused breastfeeding and reduction of cow’s milk.
As you can see, the cows of the first belly have a flatter curve and a lower milk peak, and yet their milking continuity is higher and decreases slowly.

The five stages of animal production are as follows

  1. From the time of delivery until 80 days after
  2. 80 to 200 days after delivery
  3. 200 to 305 days after delivery
  4. 45 to 60 days before delivery
  5. Dry period (last 2 months of pregnancy)


According to these steps, it is recommended to apply special feeding programs and diets of dairy cows for more production and healthy keeping of livestock.
It is necessary to divide the cows based on production, lactation stage, calving time and body score status in order to apply better nutrition management to the whole herd. This classification depends on accurate, permanent recording and complete recording of events in animal husbandry.
This relationship requires special attention to newborn cows to peak milk production in 1 to 2 months after calving and achieve a healthy herd and high reproduction

Should not be a dairy cow nutrition program

What is considered in this article is the online media training unit of Isfahan Cooperative Company, which should not be a dairy cow nutrition program. We hope that by analyzing the cases, a step can be taken to support the productivity and profitability of the esteemed members of the company.


1One of the most important should not be a diet plan is to strictly avoid sudden and rapid changes in diet that cause gastrointestinal upset and start gradual changes.

The concentrate should be added gradually to the animal feed in the first instance to prevent disturbance to the herd. The precautionary period for livestock may be up to about two weeks

The first golden tip

There are billions of bacteria and millions of protozoa in the rumen of livestock and a number of microorganisms that digest the food consumed by livestock by these microorganisms.


When a new food is fed to a trap with a different composition than before, the old microorganisms in the rumen are destroyed and the formation of new microorganisms takes about three days to a week. Is trapped.

The second golden tip

It is normal to see a reduction in milk production or growth at the beginning of adding concentrate to the animal’s diet and the farmer should not worry about them. These problems resolve as soon as the gastrointestinal tract adapts to the new food and returns to its original state.

2Avoid increasing the concentrate until the stresses related to calving are resolved and keep its level to such an extent that dairy cows receive a minimum amount of ADF (18 to 19%) and produce quality milk while enjoying gastrointestinal health. .

3The amount of dietary protein should not be high, if the cow does not reach the peak of milk production, it is necessary to reduce the amount of dietary protein (cotton seed meal, bran and alfalfa)

4Diet energy, ie the amount of concentrate should not be low, if the cow can not maintain the peak of production, the energy of the diet, ie the amount of concentrate should be considered.

5In the middle of lactation, ie one hundred to two hundred days after calving, which is the peak feed intake, the amount of concentrate should not be more than 2.3% of cow weight.

6In late lactation of cows, ie 200 days to 305 days after calving, which ends with the drying of milk, due to the lack of nutrients, the ratio of bulk forage to concentrate should be increased and using non-protein nitrogenous compounds such as urea. Reduced food costs.

7dry periods should not be reduced. It is recommended that the dry period of a cow should be between 45 and 60 days. Increasing this period increases the physical score of the animal. Reducing this period causes the body and breast tissue reserves not to have the necessary time to regenerate and this is not suitable for the production of cattle in the next period. During the dry season, cows are allowed to repair breast tissue

8The energy balance in the cow’s body should not be disturbed, which usually occurs 6 to 8 weeks after the peak of lactation.

9The physical condition score of a cow in the first lactation period should not decrease more than 0.5 units until it reaches the peak of production.
If more than this amount of cow loses weight during this period, egg growth will decrease, which further decrease in the score at this time will reduce the amount of hormones necessary for LH egg growth and will shorten the estrus period of the animal.

10In the dry period, do not eat too much food such as corn kernels, corn silage and alfalfa. Consumption of large amounts of salt and potassium also causes edema in the breasts and imbalances of calcium, phosphorus and manganese cause milk fever.

11Consumption of concentrate alone is dangerous for animal health and can cause serious problems. Therefore, in the best combination of concentrate with woody forage, it seems necessary.

12The combination of fodder and concentrate is not enough to meet the needs of livestock all year round. For example, in cold seasons, livestock energy decreases. In this case, additives such as sugarcane and beet molasses eliminate these problems.

13The amount of concentrate used is not fixed for all livestock. For example, the best diet for dairy cows includes 40% forage and 60% concentrate. This is while for fattening calves 30 20% forage is used along with 80 70% concentrate.

14periods of feed habituation in the transition period from waiting to newborn should not be less than 4 to 5 weeks. This is because the rumen wall takes 4 to 6 weeks to get used to diets rich in concentrate, while microbial changes take 3 weeks.


Dairy cow ration


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