Management of heifers
Management of heifers
Herds in a dairy farm can be divided into different groups, each of which requires separate breeding management; And the farmer must be able to properly implement these management practices, which include nutrition, health, status, etc., on each group in order to achieve maximum breeding efficiency.
Various groups including suckling calves, fattening male calves, female calves (heifers), dry cows, pregnant cows, calving cows, lactating cows and bulls;
Female calves or heifers
Female calves, or heifers, are the most important group of herds that conceive for the first time. The goal is to be able to mate at 13 to 14 months of age and give birth at less than 25 months of age.
Improper breeding causes heifers to spawn sooner or later, and this can lead to irreparable economic damage to a dairy farm.
In order to perform regular breeding of heifers, it is necessary to pay more attention to the application of management factors, especially nutritional factors, and its nutritional needs must be met according to the type of animal production at each stage.
Sub-total females: heifers that are prepared for mating or artificial insemination (12 to 14 months old)
Foot females: heifers that show the first sign of estrus (mating) and are used for insemination (more than 14 months)
Females 15-14 months to 24-23 months: Heifers that become pregnant at the age of 14 to 15 months and give birth after a period of 9 months (age 23 to 24 months).
Heifer feed ration
Dry matter: A heifer during the day should feed 4% of body weight of dry matter. For example, a 250 kg heifer should be fed with 10 kg of feed; Part of this feed is determined by forage and part by concentrate
The most important criteria for determining the diet required by heifers is to check the status of their body score.
Due to the incomplete growth of heifers compared to adult cows, they need more energy, protein, minerals and vitamins;
Their need for micronutrients is determined by age, weight and climatic conditions, which should be properly supervised by nutritionists and dietitians.
The Isfahan Agricultural & cattle raising cooperative company has produced heifers’ concentrate with the best quality by using nutrition specialists.
Inputs and additives used in heifer concentrate are: barley, corn, wheat bran, calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide, bentonite, toxin binder, special supplement, salt
|Specifications of heifer concentrat|
|Dry matter (percentage)||
|Net energy Mcal / Kg||
|Crude protein (percentage)||
|Crude fat (percentage)||
|Raw fibers (percentage)||