Yeast extract is one of the most environmentally friendly methods to reduce the exposure of dairy cows to mycotoxins in the feed chain.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi and molds of Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium that can contaminate food products at various stages of production, harvesting, and transportation
Countless mycotoxins have been identified that have the potential to contaminate food. Mycotoxins in animal and poultry feed include aflatoxins (AB), trotoxins (2T and DON), avocados (OTA), fumonicins (FUN), and ziralenone (ZEN), which have various adverse effects on animal health and function.
These compounds cause disease, reduced feed intake, decreased milk production, increased free radical production and animal mortality. These toxins also cause cancer, liver, kidney and brain damage in humans. The best way is to prevent these side effects and prevent the absorption of these toxins
Toxin binders are substances that are included in the diet of these animals in order to prevent the transmission of toxins to the body through livestock
Safe and environmentally friendly methods are being developed to reduce the exposure of animals to mycotoxins in the feed chain. One of these compounds is yeast extract and its wall, which as a natural binder toxin removes toxins from the animal’s body without reducing the absorption of dietary nutrients and micronutrients.
Two important compounds in the wall structure that play a role in the binder toxin of yeast extract are β-glucan and mannan. These compounds are yeast wall polysaccharides. The structure of mannan is similar to the structure of the junction of pathogenic compounds on the intestinal wall.
Therefore, by attaching to these compounds, it prevents them from attaching to the living intestinal wall. Because digestive enzymes are not able to digest manna, the manna complex of the pathogen is removed from the body. The structure of the yeast wall is such that it provides a suitable site for the binding of mycotoxins (aflatoxin A).
Intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces result in the formation of a polysaccharide-toxin complex that prevents the absorption of mycotoxins. By binding to the surface receptors of immune cells, beta-glucan activates immune signals and thus stimulates specific and nonspecific immune responses.